Friday, April 21, 2017

From the Files: A Strange Midday Darkness

The Reading Eagle, September 2, 1881

Port Jervis, Sept. 2 – There is a good deal of comment here over the unusual condition of the sky. The sun has been obscured all day, although no ordinary clouds have been visible. A haze prevails which is so dense that the mountains are obscured, and this forenoon a dense bank of haze moved eastward over the valley. There are no forest fires in the immediate vicinity, and there is no odor of smoke in the air. The atmosphere has been more or less hazy for a week. Nothing like the present dark condition is remembered. It is necessary to use gas in rooms not well lighted.


A note of interest: While the residents of Port Jervis note that there were no nearby forest fires and there was no noticeable smell of smoke, there were a number of them burning across Pennsylvania and New York at the time, which may account for the dark haze. The same edition of The Reading Eagle reports these fires and also the drought that was affecting the farmers in the region.

From The Files: Knife Blade in the Skull

The Reading Eagle, August 29, 1881


Valentine Kemmerer, of Pottsville, complained of a pain in the head. Doctors examined his skull and cut out a piece of the bone which contained a piece of a steel knife blade, about one and a half inches long.

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Pennsylvania Place Names: Almost Counties

David Poyer, who is one of my favorite writers and a Pennsylvania native, wrote a series of novels about a fictional county in northwestern Pennsylvania. While his fictional Hemlock County does not really exist, the map of Pennsylvania would have had a different look had the bid for new counties been successful.

Some counties that almost existed, but did not make it through the Legislature, would appear again, but with a different name. Eagle County would be denied, but would be petitioned again and formed as Clinton. Even Clinton County’s neighbor Lycoming, was almost called Muncy County. Sinnemahoning County would be renamed in Honor of General James Potter while Fulton County was almost called Liberty. Union County was nearly named Buffalo and an early suggestion for Wyoming was Putnam County.

Penns County: One of the earliest failed bids to form a new county began in 1824. The desire was to form the new county out of the northern portion of Berks County, with the county seat being Kutztown. The attempt would renew in 1838 and the vote on the bill resulted in a tie and the county bid failed. There would be other unsuccessful attempts in 1847 and 1849 at creating  Penns County.

Windsor County: A proposal in 1838 wanted to create the county out of northern Berks and Southern Schuylkill Counties. The county would have taken its name from Windsor Township located in present-day Berks County. It was attempted again in 1850 without success.

Jackson County: The effort which was attempted in 1845 and again in 1849, would have been named in honor of President Jackson.

Madison County: The attempt to create Madison County happened in 1847 and was barely defeated in the Legislature. The attempt happened again in 1845 and 1855, but President Madison would not have a Pennsylvania County named after him. 

While I have not been able to determine the size that Jackson and Madison Counties would have covered, both wanted to use land that was a part of Berks, Chester and Montgomery Counties. My guess is that these attempts were driven by the same people who used the different names to create their own county.

Conestoga County: An attempt in 1845 to create a county out of Berks, Lancaster and Chester Counties. The town of Churchtown would have been the county seat. The name would have come from Conestoga Creek which flows through the region.

Lee County: A final attempt to carve a new county out of Berks County happened in 1852 with Bernville as the county seat. The origin of the proposed name is unknown.

Anthracite County: The county (which was to be named after the coal mined there) would have been created out of Schuylkill and Luzerne Counties. The plan was set in motion in 1853, but seems to have failed early in its planning stages.

Marion County: The attempt to create this county was fueled by residents of Titusville who desired to have their community as a county seat. The first attempt was in 1858 and a second attempt occurred in 1870. The county would have been formed out of portions of Warren, Crawford and Erie Counties and would have been named in honor of General Francis Marion..

Quay County: In the 1890s there was an attempt to create a county named after Senator Matthew S. Quay. The county would have been created out of Schuylkill, Carbon and Luzerne Counties. The bill passed the Legislature but was vetoed by Governor Daniel Hastings. Thankfully the county never came to be – in 1896 Senator Quay was charged with misappropriating state funds and was removed from office.

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Pennsylvania Place Names: Penn's Rivers

The Susquehanna River, Marysville
Place names fascinate me. The origins of the names of towns and natural features within Pennsylvania’s borders have always been of interest. Who is the Delaware River named after? What is the origin of the name Allegheny? What about the Susquehanna? And the Delaware? Let’s take a look at some of these Pennsylvania waterways and how they came to be named. Please note: these are not all of the rivers within the state. We'll be exploring those other rivers in the future.

Delaware River: The headwaters of the Delaware River are in the Catskills of New York state. The West Branch begins near the town of Jefferson and forms the northeastern border of Pennsylvania. The East Branch of the Delaware begins near the town of Roxbury, New York and joins with the West Branch south of Hancock, New York. The waters form the entire length of the border between Pennsylvania and New Jersey before emptying into the Delaware Bay.

The Delaware River is named in honor of Sir Thomas West, an English nobleman and the first royal governor of the colony of Virginia. Sir West was the Third Baron De La Ware. The river was named in his honor in 1609 because the English believed that he had “discovered” it, though there is no evidence he actually visited it. The Lenape called it the Lenapi Wihituck which means “the rapid stream of the Lenape.” The Dutch who settled in the area referred to the river as South River until the English took control of the land.

Susquehanna River: The Susquehanna, like the Delaware has two major branches. The North Branch of the Susquehanna starts near Cooperstown, New York. The Susquehanna dips into Pennsylvania passing through Susquehanna Depot and Great Bend before returning back into New York State. The River returns to Pennsylvania near the town of Sayre.

The West Branch of the Susquehanna starts near the community of Carrolltown in Cambria County. The two branches of the Susquehanna join near the community of Northumberland. The combined Susquehanna flows southward into Maryland before emptying into the Chesapeake Bay.

The river is named in honor of the Susquehannock Indians who once lived in the region. The word Susquehanna comes from the Algonquin meaning “muddy waters," but local legends state the name translates to “mile wide, foot deep,” referring to the river’s dimensions of being wide, but shallow.

Ohio River: The Ohio River is formed by the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers where they join in Pittsburgh. It flows westward exiting the state near East Liverpool, Ohio coming to Cairo, Illinois where it empties into the Mississippi Rivers. The river’s name is derived from the Iroquis word ohiiyo. Ohii means “river” and yo means “good, or fine.” The Ohio River literally translates to “Good River River.”

The headwaters of the Allegheny River, Coudersport
Allegheny River: The headwaters of the Allegheny River are located northeast of Coudersport on the western slope of Cobb Hill. Cobb Hill has the distinction of having it waters going to three different waterways. Waters from the northern slope of Cobb Hill flow into the Gennesse River and the St. Lawrence River, while waters from the southern slope are part of the Susquehanna watershed.

There are three possibilities for the origin of the Allegheny River. The first possible origin comes from the Delaware language, translating to “Good River.” When the Delaware were forced westward, they translated the Iroquis word into the Algonquin language, which is oolik-henne. Oolik means “best” and henne translates to “stream.” The word meaning “most beautiful stream” was anglicized into Allegheny. The second possible origin of the name comes from the Delaware word eleuwi-guneu, which means “endless.” A third possibility is the name being derived from the tribal name Allegewi (also referred to as the Talligewi) which means “people of the cave country.”

Monongahela River: The Monongahela River begins in Fairmont, West Virginia where the West Fork River joins with the Tygart Valley River. The river flows northward entering the state near Point Marion, where it joins with the Cheat River. Moravian Missionary David Zeisberger states that the name Menawngihella translates to “high bank.” The Lenni Lenapi referred to the river as Menaonkihela, meaning “where banks cave in or erode.”

Ohiopyle Falls on the Youghiogheny River, Ohiopyle State Park
Youghiogheny River:  Starting near Silver Lake, West Virginia, the Youghiogheny jumps over the West Virginia and Maryland state line until it enters the state southwest of Addison, Pennsylvania. The river crosses the border as a art of the Youghiogheny River Lake. The river empties into the Monongahela at McKeesport. The name comes from the Algonquin word meaning “a contrary stream.” An interesting fact about the Youghiogheny is that it is the only river that flows northward through Maryland – all the other rivers in Maryland flow southward.

Juniata River: The Juniata River has its start near the town of Alexandria in Huntingdon County where the Little Juniata (forms near Altoona) and the Frankstown Branch (it forms near Claysburg in Blair County) unite. A third branch of the Juniata known as the Raystown Branch (it forms in Somerset County east of the community of Berlin) joins near the community of Ardenheim just east of the town of Huntingdon.

The origin of the river’s name is believed to be a corruption of the Iroquois word Onayutta which translates to “Standing Stone.” Onayutta was an Iroquois village that existed where the town of Huntingdon is located.

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Amanda Straw Snyder: The Dance of Eternal Spring

The Dance of Eternal Spring
Italian Lake, Harrisburg
The sun had barely risen in the sky when I arrived at the small cemetery that rested in the shadow of the Blue Mountain. Crossing the damp grass I paused at the entrance gate to the old cemetery.

Before I even entered, I realized why my contact suggested I visit this sacred place before the leaves turned green. Briars covered many of the graves and would make finding the one grave I sought a little more of a challenge. I stepped through the gate and paused at the first grave I came to. I was filled with a sadness as I discovered the words on the old, fragile stone could no longer be read.

Carefully stepping around the old stones, I read the ones that I could, searching for one famous grave among the many veterans resting here. At the rear of the cemetery, almost hidden by browned leaves, amid a small patch of brambles, I found the grave I sought. The flat stone was very simple and gives no hint of the interesting life the lady buried here lived. The stone merely states: “Amanda S. Snyder, June 2, 1875, Oct 29, 1972.”

Amanda was born in the Fishing Creek Valley, north of Harrisburg. When she was eighteen years old she moved in with a relative in Philadelphia to attend the Pierce Business College. She began performing in vaudeville where she was discovered by George Gibbs, an artist, to be his model. She was noted for her small stature, brown hair, and hourglass figure which was popular at the time.

At the start of her modeling career, she adopted the professional name of Madeline Stokes. As a part of her modeling, she would pose nude. Knowing her family would not have approved of her career choice, she changed her name so her family back home would not know what she was doing.

By her mid thirties, Amanda was in high demand and often sought after. She was known to have an unmoving pose. Once she struck a pose, she could go nearly twenty-five minutes without moving. After the taking a short break, she was able to return to the exact position without correction. Amanda’s ability set a record while she was modeling for a statue. She remained in a plaster cast that covered her entire body for nine hours.

Amanda posed for some famous artists of the time including John Sloan, Robert Henri, and N.C. Wyeth. When not modeling for famous artists, she had a tour schedule visiting art schools In Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Illinois. She graced many magazine covers of the times including The Delineator, The Metropolitan Magazine, The Ladies’ Home Journal, and The Saturday Evening Post.

Amanda retired from modeling in 1914 (at the age of thirty-eight) after marrying artist Albert Snyder. They moved to a farm near Utica, New York, and she remained there until his death in the 1930s. After his death, she returned to the Fishing Creek Valley. In 1952 she moved into the Homeland Center in Harrisburg were she remained until her death in 1972.

My interest in Amanda and her life began after I stumbled upon an article about Italian Lake in Harrisburg. Located in the middle of Italian Lake is the sculpture known as The Dance of Eternal Spring and the three dancing nymphs are modeled after Amanda.

The dancing myphs
Top of The Dance of Eternal Spring
The story of the statue begins in 1909. That year Milton S. Hershey commissioned Giuseppe Donato, an Italian sculptor who was living in Philadelphia, to create a fountain for the grounds of Hershey’s estate. A verbal commitment was struck and Hershey gave Donato two thousand dollars as a down payment on the fountain.

Donato settled on Amanda as one of his models and set to work creating his masterpiece.

When finished, Donato presented the fountain to Hershey who refused to pay for it or even have anything to do with the fountain. Stokes in her later years claimed that she was extremely pleased with the fountain and Donato’s work.

The exact reason why Hershey refused the fountain is not clear. A popular thought at the time was Hershey was shocked at the dancing nudes and was afraid of what his Dutch neighbors would think. While this is a possibility the subject of the nudes was never brought up during the trial.

Another reason, and possibly the true reason, was the price tag of $30,000. Hershey refused to pay for the work and it sat for two years in a crate at the Hershey Railroad station.

In 1909, Donato sued Hershey in the Dauphin County Court. Donato claimed when he was commissioned to create the fountain despite the cost. Hershey claimed he wouldn’t pay ten dollars for anything from Donato’s studio and Donato responded by claiming the fountain that Hershey eventually purchased wasn’t worth the cost of demolishing and tossing into the Susquehanna River.

The end result was the jury awarded Donato a verdict of a little more than $23,000.

Even after paying for the fountain, Hershey refused to accept it and eventually gave it to Harrisburg officials who promptly placed it in storage while trying to figure out what to do with it. At one point it was going to be placed in Riverfront Park, but that never happened.

While the debate was going on, the fountain sat unassembled in its original packaging. A frustrated Donato was so upset that his fountain had yet to be displayed that he supposedly claimed that the The Dance of Eternal Spring could be melted down for bullets, so at least it was being used for something, but hoped that the city could find a place for it so its beauty could be seen by all.

In 1920 the statue was placed in Reservoir Park at a location that was hidden behind shrubbery. The fountain was moved to the Municipal Rose Garden that was located along Third Street in 1938. On September 15, 1938, the fountain was dedicated as a part of the Municipal Rose Gardens. It sat there until February of 1971. The hospital was planning on expanding and asked the city officials to remove the statue.

Donato’s fountain was going to be returned to storage. Rose bushes from the Memorial Gardens were salvaged by Reverend Doctor Bell and planted behind the Grace United Methodist Church. Bell argued before the council that the fountain should not remain in storage but as a part of the city’s heritage it should be displayed. He suggested Riverfront Park, but settled on Italian Lake. Amanda also addressed the council on the future of The Dance of Eternal Spring. At the age of ninety-eight she was described by reporters and still being very sharp and charming.

In July 1971, spectators watched as a crane lowered the fountain onto a small island in the midst of Italian Lake. Amanda was among those watching the fountain being lowered to the place that would become its home.

A story goes that after The Dance of Eternal Spring was first erected that Amanda and a friend from Fishing Creek Valley visited the fountain to view it. Her friend, not knowing Amanda’s lifestyle when away from Fishing Creek Valley, asked her if she could ever image posing as a nude model. Amanda, keeping her modeling career a secret, replied she could never image posing nude.

Amanda’s likeness can be seen in other places across the state. Her likeness can be spotted in the murals done by Violet Oakley that adorn the state capitol building. These murals are located in the Governor’s Reception Room, the Senate Chamber, and the Supreme Court Room. Amanda was also the model for Alexander Stirling Calder’s Sun Dial which stands in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia.

Grave of Amanda Straw Snyder
Fishing Creek Valley
A note about the name Straw: Amanda’s last name was Straw, from the German name Stroh. Interesting while her parents use Straw and most of her siblings used Straw, many of the family descendants have returned to using Stroh rather than Straw.

An interesting note about the 1938 moving of the statue: The moving of the fountain created a lot of interest at the time. How would the nudes be transported from place to place? Would citizens be offended by the nude figures being transported through the city? One group said they would cover it with a sheet. Another suggested they would move it at night. Another suggested they would cover it up and move it at night. Another suggested the use of a large covered truck. The debate seemed to come to an end when a city official stated he did not think it would necessary to cover the fountain during transport. When it was moved it was placed on the back of a truck bed and moved without incident.

A note about Italian Lake: How did Italian Lake get its name? The origin of the name is not clear. A popular version of the origins of the name is this place was once very popular place for the local Italian community. Another version of the park name came from the Italian Hotel that once stood on the spot where the park now exists.



Friday, April 7, 2017

Along the Way: Hedda Hopper

Grave of Hedda Hopper
Rose Hill Cemetery, Altoona
"You're kind of young to know who Hedda was…aren’t you?” the groundskeeper asked as he curiously stared at me.  Before I could answer the question he continued, "What do you know about Hedda?"

"Not a whole lot,” I answered honestly. “I know she was from Altoona and her columns were the forerunner of the gossip papers."

"Hollidaysburg,” he corrected. “She was born in Hollidaysburg. You know we used to have a lot of visitors stopping at her grave, but fewer and fewer come to visit her nowadays." He paused for a moment before suddenly blurting out, “Follow me.” I followed in my vehicle as he drove the lawn mower through the grounds of cemetery towards a place near the entrance. Parking along the drive, we walked over to the small, simple stone that marked the resting place of Hedda Hopper.

Hedda Hopper was born Elda Furry in Hollidaysburg, daughter of David and Margaret Furry. When she was three he moved his family to nearby Altoona.

While still in her teens Elda ran away from home for New York City, where she performed in a number of choruses on Broadway. Within a few years, she turned her focus on acting and was soon touring the United States performing in a number of plays. By 1915 she had left the touring performances behind and headed to Hollywood to act in the movies.

It was during her time touring that she married DeWolf Hopper, Sr. (their marriage lasted from 1913-1922), the owner of the touring company she performed for. Due to the fact he kept calling her by the names of his previous wives (this was his fifth marriage), Elda approached a psychic who proclaimed Elda should adopt the name of Hedda, which she did.

Hedda’s first movie was Battle of Hearts and over the next twenty-three years she would appear in more than 120 movies. She often was portrayed as the distinguished society woman. By the mid-1930s, her movie career was coming to an end.

In 1937, Hedda would be offered the chance of a lifetime: she would produce a gossip column. Known as “Hedda Hopper’s Hollywood," her gossip column found no boundaries as she exposed the darkest secrets of Hollywood. It was during her stint as a gossip columnist that she developed a feud with Louella Parsons, also a Hollywood gossip columnist, who started the whole "celebrity gossip" market. Hopper began her stint in the gossip market by feeding Louella information about what was going on in Hollywood. When Hopper was offered the job by a rival newspaper to write her own column, the two began a bitter feud. Both Louella and Hedda had power in the words they wrote and anything they said could help or hinder a person's career.

Hedda's column attacked all of Hollywood as she held nothing back. She would often accuse stars of homosexuality; at the time this would have destroyed their careers and any chance of them landing or keeping a leading role. In later years she would be a part of the "Red Scare" witch hunt accusing a number of Hollywood players of being Communists.

At the age of 80, Hedda Hopper died of pneumonia. Her body was returned to Altoona and buried in the family plot in Rose Hill Cemetery. While she hadn't made it big in the movies, the world has never been the same thanks to her career in "journalism" that we see every time we go to the store today.

We stood in silence for a minute or two before the groundskeeper announced that he had to get back to work. I finished paying my respects, snapped a couple pictures and left her to rest with her family.

Hedda is buried in Rose Hill Cemetery, Altoona. Finding her grave is a little tricky, but I’ll give the best directions that I can. When entering the cemetery, the road splits. Part of the road goes to the left; but you want to drive straight ahead. Park immediately before the road splits again. Look for the grave stone of William Rudy in the section on the left. Hedda is buried in the row of stones behind William's grave -- it will take a little bit of a search to find it, but it is there.

A note of interest: Hedda was born on May 5, 1885, but she often stated that she was born on June 2, 1890. The exact reason is murky, but most sources believe it was so people thought she was younger than she actually was.

Another interesting note: While I was talking to the groundskeeper he shared with me a story that I can neither prove nor disprove. He claimed that the former groundskeeper told him that Hedda was only partially buried here. The story goes that the family had her cremated and had some of her ashes buried here and some were scattered atop Brush Mountain. Again, I can’t prove this to be true, but it still makes an interesting story.

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Along the Way: Nancy Kulp

Grave of Nancy Kulp
Westminster Cemetery, Mifflintown
On a hillside overlooking the Juniata River in Mifflintown, the county seat of Juniata County, among the quiet stones of Westminster Presbyterian Cemetery, is the resting place of Miss Jane Hathaway. Next to her parents among the rolling hills of the Juniata Valley is Nancy Kulp, a Pennsylvania native whose most noted role was Miss Jane Hathaway, the loyal, efficient secretary of Milburn Drysdale on The Beverly Hillbillies.

Nancy Kulp was born in Harrisburg on August 28, 1921, the only child of a traveling salesman and his wife. Her family moved to Florida in the 1930 where, in 1943, she graduated from Florida State University with a degree in journalism. She attended the University of Miami, but dropped out in 1944 to join the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service). Lieutenant Junior Grade Kulp received various medals for her service, including the American Campaign Medal and the Good Conduct Medal.

Nancy left the service in 1946 and headed to Hollywood to become a publicist, but was soon convinced that she should be in front of the camera, not behind it. She started out by appearing in small roles in movies and television shows, but it wasn't until she landed a part in The Bob Cummings Show that she really became a household name. At the end of the shows run, she appeared in a number of shows, but when she landed the role of Miss Jane Hathaway, Nancy would forever be remembered.

After the end of The Beverly Hillbillies Nancy continued acting, appearing in a handful of shows and also on Broadway. In 1984, she ran on the Democratic ticket for the U.S. House of Representative, but lost to Bud Shuster. After her defeat, she took up working with Juniata College as an Artist in Residence. After retiring, she moved to a farm in Connecticut. In 1990 she was diagnosed with cancer of the larynx and passed on February 3, 1991, at a friend's home in Palm Springs.

Through research had discovered that Kulp was buried in the Westminster Presbyterian Cemetery; however, I had not found where in the cemetery she was buried. As I was returning home from Harrisburg one day, I decided I’d make a side trip into Mifflintown to visit the cemetery. Having some time to search the grounds, I decidedto see if I could  find her resting place. Looking at pictures of the cemetery, I knew I had my work cut out and figured it would take a couple of trips to find it.

Grave of Nancy Kulp
Entering the cemetery from North Third Street, I drove slowly along the drive, scanning the names on the stones. I had only gone a short distance when I caught sight of the name Kulp on a stone. It was Nancy’s grave. Parking along the drive, I walked over to pay my respects to the talented actress who called Central Pennsylvania her home.

Growing up, The Beverly Hillbillies was often on television. Of course, I grew up on the reruns of the reruns of the reruns. I was familiar with the fictional characters, but I had never realized that one of their cast was from a neighboring county. By the time she was involved in state politics, I was still too young to have any interest in the politics of the state or nation for that matter, unless it was something that was affecting me directly. By the time she passed, I was in high school and if it was in the newspapers (which it probably was) I had no realization of who she was.

The sun was setting as I finished paying my respects and the sound of crickets filled the air as I left her resting on the hill overlooking the Juniata River.

Nancy’s grave is very easy to visit. From Route 322 take Route 35 into Mifflintown. Turn right  North Third Street (the road immediately behind the Juniata County Courthouse). Follow this street into the cemetery. Once through the gates, look to the left; her grave can be easily spotted from the roadway just a short distance inside.


Sunday, April 2, 2017

Along the Way: Wechquetank

Wechquetank Mission Memorial
Mill Pond Road, Gilbert
Note the correction of the word "historical"
Just south of Gilbert, along Mill Pond Road, is a monument that most people are not aware of. It was on my third trip to the area that I discovered the monument, thanks to a friend’s directions. Had it not been for it being brought to my attention, I would never have ventured off Route 209 and onto the narrow back road, to visit the monument for the Wechquetank Mission.

On the north side of Mill Pond Road stands a shaft of granite, standing eight feet tall, four feet wide and two feet thick. The wording on the monument is vague and leaves the viewer questioning the exact importance of this spot.

The Site of
WECHQUETANK,
A Moravian
Indian Mission Station,
1760-1763.
Erected by the
Moravian Historical Society,
A.D. 1907

The mission was founded by the Moravian Church as a means of converting the Native Americans to Christianity. Founded by the followers of Jan Hus (John Huss) in 1457, the Moravians became the first large scale Protestant missionary movement. Hus would not survive to see his teachings take root and grow; Hus would be tried for heresy against the Roman Catholic Church and was burned at the stake in 1415.

In North America, the Moravians were known for setting up missions and preaching to the natives to bring to them the news of Christianity. Wechquetank was one of these missions.

Set up in 1760, the mission came into existence four years after Fort Norris was erected just west of here. (More about Fort Norris can be found here: Fort Norris) The Wechquetank Mission was founded by Gottlieb Senseman in April of 1760. Its name was derived from the Indian word "Wekquitank," a species of willow that was common along Pohopoco Creek. Pohopoco is another native word for the same type of willow. Just a quick note: Pohopoco Creek is also referred to as Hoeth’s Creek, Head Creek, Heads Creek and Big Creek in various histories.

Wechquetank Mission Memorial
The mission housed thirty Indians who had accompanied Senseman from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Once the mission was established, Bernard A. Grube was placed in charge of it and under his guidance the mission flourished and grew during its three years of existence. While stationed here, Grube translated the Four Gospels into the Delaware language. 

With the onset of Pontiac's War in 1763, the mission floundered. The rise in hostilities created a deadly threat to the peaceful Indians living here. These converts faced death at the hands of both the white settlers and the raiding Indians.

In August 1763, these fears became real. A group of four Indians (Zacharias, his wife and child, and another convert known as Zippora) were traveling towards a village on the Susquehanna when they sought refuge in a barn under the guard of Captain Wetterhold. While they were sleeping, the soldiers, who were drunk at the time, shot and killed the group. White settlers feared retaliation from Zacharias’ four brothers for the senseless murder and Indians at the mission feared more violence against them.

On October 8, 1763, a group of hostile Indians raided the John Stinton farm near Bethlehem. Stinton and several soldiers were killed during the attack. It was in this skirmish Captain Wetterhold was severely wounded and died later that day from his injuries. The result of this raid was the immediate abandonment of the Wechquetank Mission. Fearing for their lives, those living at the mission fled to Nazareth seeking shelter and protection. These converts would eventually be moved to Philadelphia for their safety.

On November 6, the mission was officially abandoned and the peaceful Indians who remained were ordered from Wechquetank. Sometime around the 11th of November the mission was burned to the ground.

The monument was placed in 1907 by the Moravian Historical Society. The iron enclosed memorial is currently surrounded by rolling hills of a small farm. When visiting the site, I found very little parking. Thankfully, the day I visited, there was very little traffic on the back road where the monument is located.

To visit the monument, turn south from the red light in Gilbert onto State Route 3005 (also known as Gilbert Road). This is the same road, that if you go north on it, will take you to the Kresge Family Monument. Information about it can be found here: Kresge Monument. Travel approximately one mile, turn right onto Mill Pond Road (this will be the first intersection). The monument is a short distance along this road on the right.