Sunday, March 26, 2017

The Enoch Brown Massacre

Memorial for Enoch Brown and his pupils
Sadly in the modern world violence has become such a part of our lives that we tend to be insensitive to the horrific acts that permeate the news outlets. While some are quickly forgotten, others remain fresh in our minds, especially when it comes to major acts of senseless violence that haunt our schools. I know in my own mind I can tell you where I was at when I heard about the shooting at the Columbine High School in Colorado and at the Amish School at Nickel Mines here in Pennsylvania.

The history of school violence predates these modern shootings by two hundred plus years. The first act of school violence in the Americas occurs in 1764, within the borders of Pennsylvania.

ocated northwest of Greencastle, the Enoch Brown Memorial Park is a lasting memorial to the act of violence that affected the Pennsylvania frontier. Enjoying the drive among the rolling hills of Franklin County, I found my way to the park. Turning down the narrow, pine tree-lined dirt road, an eerie feeling seemed to fill the air as I drove slowly toward my destination. I could see the memorial at the end of the tunnel of trees, which caused me to shiver at the tragedy that happened here so long ago.

Passing the pavilion and playground area, I found a place to park near the large memorial. Despite having read about the massacre, actually seeing the location first-hand sent goosebumps up my arms as I read the words carved into the large memorial that was erected at the spot where the old schoolhouse once stood. As I stood before the memorial, the stillness of the countryside seemed to grow even quieter – all of nature seemed to grow silent as I paid my respects to those who died here so long ago.

One side of the memorial
For Enoch Brown and his pupils
I first encountered the senseless deaths of the teacher Enoch Brown and his pupils in Sipe's Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. Sipe records the summer of 1764 as a very violent and bloody year on the Pennsylvania frontier.

The Seven Years' War (known in America as the French and Indian War) had ended only the year before with the Treaty of Paris (1763). Though European countries had found a temporary state of peace, the war that had scarred the landscape and damaged the lives of those living on the American frontier raged on. Due to the constant attacks and threats of warfare on the advancing settlements, the state of Pennsylvania offered a reward for any Indian scalp, male or female, taken from one who was over the age of ten.

Life on the frontier would become even bloodier. With the promise of a monetary reward, settlers killed Indians at first sight and Indians retaliated by raiding the settlements even more than they had in the past. Tensions were high and both sides were spoiling for a fight. The result was known as Pontiac's War.

Starting at the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, Pontiac's War lasted until 1766. In the conflict, members of the Iroquois Nations joined together to fight the British in North America. People tend to think of the conflict as the British colonists versus the Indians, but it was not that clear cut  as many Indians did not want to go to war and instead sought peace among the settlers. But the warring factions brought a reign of terror on the western frontier that swept all Indians – whether friendly or not – into a continual cycle of violence.

But the Indians were not the only ones responsible for terrible and horrific crimes on the Pennsylvania frontier. On December 14, 1763, a group of men known as the Paxton Boys raided a peaceful Indian settlement at Conestoga, killing six of them. The remaining fourteen Conestogas were arrested for their safety and placed in the jail at Lancaster. On December 27, the Paxton Boys attacked again, breaking into the Lancaster jail and slaughtered the Conestogas being held there.

The spring of 1764 saw a number of raids into present-day Cumberland and Franklin Counties. Settlers knew that danger seemed to be behind every hill, bush and tree. But nothing would prepare the settlers of the terrible event that would occur in the summer of that year.

On July 26, 1764 one of the most horrific massacres of Pontiac's War occurred. Located roughly three miles northwest of present-day Greencastle was a small schoolhouse run by Enoch Brown. Very little has been recorded about the life of Enoch Brown. However what little has been written describes him as a kindhearted school master who showed good Christian values.

The mass grave holding the remains of
Enoch Brown and ten of his pupils
Nothing seemed out of the ordinary that morning as eleven students arrived at the schoolhouse for their lessons. The students included two girls and nine boys – Archie McCullough, Ruth Hale, Ruth Hart, Eben Taylor, George Dustan, two boys of the Dean family, plus four others whose names have unfortunately been forgotten over the years.

According to local legend, a number of students skipped class for one reason or another that morning, sparing their lives. If legend is true, then at least six children (if not more) had strange reasons they were not in class – ranging from stopping to watch people cut hay to one girl who had a strange feeling of dread. One of the students who supposedly skipped school that day was a young James Poe, who would later become a noted Indian fighter on the Pennsylvania frontier.

While teaching the students that morning, the classroom was disrupted by three Indians who barged into the schoolhouse. The trio, consisting of two elderly men and a young warrior, burst through the door bringing the day's lesson to an end. Enoch obviously knew what was about to happen and in an attempt to save the lives of the children, he stepped forwarded and offered himself as a sacrifice. Enoch Brown was struck down, beaten and scalped in front of his horrified students.

The taking of Enoch's life did nothing to appease the raiders. They attacked the children next. One by one the children fell and were scalped.

The horrific scene was discovered a couple hours later by a passerby who was curious why the schoolhouse seemed so quiet. Looking inside the building, the terrible atrocity was discovered – Enoch Brown lay butchered in the center of the room, still holding onto the Bible he taught from. Around him were ten of the eleven students who attended class that day. The room was a bloody mess and the mangled bodies were lying in a large pool of blood.

Upon discovering this dreadful sight, the passerby ran to spread word. Soon families and neighbors arrived to claim their dead. A search of the area would discover the missing child, who had survived the massacre. Archie McCullough, was discovered washing his bloody, scalped head at the nearby spring that provided water for the schoolhouse.

Archie would later tell of how Enoch Brown offered his life for the safety of the children and how the Indians attacked the defenseless children. The raiding Indians struck Archie on the head and brutally ripped a portion of his scalp away. Once the Indians left the building Archie managed to hide himself behind the fireplace in case they would come back in and found him still alive. Only after he was convinced they were gone, he crawled from the schoolhouse to the nearby spring where searchers discovered him. Archie would never mentally be the same again.

Marker at the grave site
The families of the victims would have a large box constructed and Enoch and the ten children would be buried in a mass grave near the schoolhouse.

Leaving the larger marker, I crossed the recently cut grass to the grave site which was a short distance away. I stood there taking in the events of that terrible day, unable to take in the fear that the children and their teacher must have known as the hollow seemed to grow even quieter – it was as if nature was remembering the deaths of the innocents.

A deeper sadness permeated the air as I realized that, almost a hundred years after the horrible event, it had been mostly forgotten about by locals.

Yes, most residents have completely forgotten, or have never learned, about the terrible events of that day. There they would lie, almost completely forgotten about by most. Many thought that the story of the massacre was merely a legend, because no identifiable grave could be located near the old schoolhouse. It would not be until the mid-1840s when the common grave was discovered by a group of men who marked the grave with four locust trees.

In the spring of 1883, the four locust trees were cut down and, fearing that the grave would be lost, a group of local men offered to purchase the land. On August 4, 1885, a marker was erected in honor of the victims of the massacre. At the mass grave, a tombstone was placed for the ten victims resting there. The memorial was placed a short distance from the common grave which is at the location of the old schoolhouse.

Memorial at Archie's Spring
After paying my respects to those buried there, I glanced down the Bell Trail and could see another marker. Walking down the hill, I discovered another marker that covered a spring, known now as Archie's Spring. This was the spot where they located the scalped survivor as he attempted to wash the blood from his head.

As I stood there in silence, the only thing I could hear was the sound of water running. The feeling of sadness that lingered in the air finally took its toll on me as a tear rolled down my check. I wiped it quickly away as I remembered the senseless violence that happened that terrible day. I recomposed myself and rather than continuing down the trail, I returned to the grave site to say one more word of remembrance before leaving the memories of the past lingering in the hollow behind me

Though it is a park, complete with a pavilion and and playground, please be respectful if you choose to visit, especially the area of the grave.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Along the Way: Salt Creek Covered Bridge

Salt Creek Covered Bridge, Zanesville, Ohio
 My plans for the morning were falling apart quickly. The plan was to spend the morning in Zanesville, exploring the town and its surroundings. I arrived in town only to get detoured due to some big event that was going on (I never did figure out what it was).

Looking through my list of things to visit in the region, I settled on a covered bridge a little further east. Rather than the more direct route, the GPS had me taking numerous winding, narrow country roads which had some very sharp turns on them. After a thirty minute drive I finally spotted the covered bridge ahead of me on the left. (I’m not sure why the GPS took me the route it did, but when I left the covered bridge it was a ten minute drive to the exact spot I started at, but the drive was worth it because I saw a number of deer and a flock of turkeys as I drove along.)

Salt Creek Covered Bridge with
Ohio State Historical Marker
Stone to left of bridge is a historical plaque
I found a parking spot in a small pull-off area that had been part of the original road before the bridge was detoured by the current one, I had only taken a couple of steps before the dark skies let go and the cold rain fell. I dashed quickly for the bridge and found a place to stay dry. The sound of the rain hitting the tin roof was comforting, though I hoped that the shower would pass quickly.

Located along Arch Hill Road, the Salt Creek Covered Bridge (also known as Johnson Mill Covered Bridge – Johnson Mills is the community that once existed here) is one of the two remaining in Muskingum County and is the older of the two, having been built in 1876. It spans Big Salt Creek with a length of eighty-seven feet long and has a Warren Truss. An interesting piece of information I’ve discovered that this is the only remaining covered bridge with a pure Warren Truss design in the United States.

Historical plaque on stone next to the bridge
Unlike most covered bridges, the history of the Salt Lick Covered Bridge has been well documented. Originally built in 1876, it was covered in 1879. In 1953 the bridge was bypassed by Arch Hill Road and the bridge reverted to the property owner. The Southern Ohio Covered Bridge Association was formed in 1960 and purchased the bridge, replacing the roof with a tin one in 1962. The bridge was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. In order to get funding for upkeep, the bridge ownership was given to the county in 1995.

The rain stopped as quickly as it started and I exited the other end of the bridge to view the Ohio State Historical Marker that mentioned the importance of covered bridges and also a brief history of the Salt Creek Covered Bridge. A plaque on a stone next to the bridge also provided a little more information on the history of the bridge.

Salt Creek Covered Bridge
Ohio State Historical Marker
After taking a couple more pictures of the bridge, I was interrupted by the distant sound of thunder. I paused long enough to take a couple final photographs before leaving the peaceful location in search of a couple more interesting pieces of regional history before the next storm arrived. 

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Along the Way: Erie Falls

Erie Falls
Photograph courtesy of Susan
I want to start with stating that the trails winding through Ganoga Glen and Glen Leigh are steep in spots and can become slippery. Please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls and please wear proper footwear.

Though the distance between the Tuscarora Falls and the Erie Falls is probably the shortest distance between any of the named falls along the Falls Trail, I honestly found this to be one of my favorite sections of the trail. With the amount of photographs taken by Susan, Kevin and myself, it was obvious that this waterfall was one of our favorites in the park.

The Ganoga Branch of Kitchen Creek flows around large boulders placed there over the years by the water as it ate away at the rocks in the glen. I could only stare at some of them in absolute amazement, seeing how the waters have tossed these gigantic boulders around.

Erie Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
Having a drop of forty-seven feet, the water of the Ganoga Branch of Kitchen Creek cascades over the sandstone formations known as Erie Falls. Nature has placed it in the prime location - it is the final jewel coming down the Ganoga Glen or it is the first one if you are hiking up it.

The Erie lived on the lands bordering the Great Lakes in Western New York, Northwestern Pennsylvania and northern Ohio. The Erie are often referred to as “The Cat People.” Their full name (in their language was Erielhonan, which means “long tail” or “mountain lion.” The Erie were enemies of the Iroquois and by 1656 the majority of the Erie had been slaughtered by their nemesis. Those not killed were adopted into the Iroquois or were taken back as slaves. By 1680 the last of the remaining Erie surrendered to the Iroquois.

Erie Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
In my opinion, the beauty of this particular waterfall pales only in comparison to two other waterfalls within Ganoga Glen - Ganoga and Tuscarora Falls.

We left the falls and a hundred yards later we were standing at Waters Meet. Here the Ganoga Branch and the Glen Leigh Branch of Kitchen Creek come together to continue down the glen. At the junction of the two is a marker for the The Glens Natural Area.

We paused for a couple minutes enjoying the peaceful location before we headed downstream to one more waterfall before heading up the Glen Leigh.

Gonoga Branch of Kitchen Creek from Waters Meet
Again, please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls.

A note of thanks: A big thank you goes out to Susan and Kevin for joining me on this adventure and also for allowing the usage of their pictures in this article.

Friday, March 10, 2017

Along the Way: Tuscarora Falls

Tuscarora Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
 I want to start with stating that the trails winding through Ganoga Glen and Glen Leigh are steep in spots and can become slippery. Please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls and please wear proper footwear.

After we left the disappointing Conestoga Falls, we continued down the glen toward the next of the named waterfalls. The short distance seemed even longer as the trail narrowed in spots and we had to stop often to allow people to pass us just as other hikers moved aside for us to pass.

As we moved along this portion of the trail, it was the first time that I truly realized how dangerous the Falls Trail really was. Portions of the narrow trail had broken off and slid to the creek below - one misstep here would cause the hiker definite harm. Though, as Zech mentioned many times before and would continue to remind me over and over along the trail, the trail was dangerous due to the steep drops along the way. However, this was the first time that it really sunk into my brain exactly how dangerous it could be as the eroded path became narrower in places.

The upper portion of Tuscarora Falls
Looking into the history of the park, the trails that we were hiking on have had little done to them over the years. From time to time the bridges were fixed and the rock steps fixed, but for the most part the trail has remained unchanged.

As we approached Tuscarora Falls, the roar of the water echoed in the glen and we were soon overlooking the falls.

Of all of the waterfalls we encountered along the trail, Tuscarora Falls ranks as one of my favorites. Another blog states that the log in the falls takes away from the beauty of the falls, but I personally disagree. I think that the log adds character and uniqueness, but again, that is my opinion.

To fully appreciate the beauty of this waterfall, we carefully descended a path to the base of the falls. The path is very steep and it is easy to lose your footing, but with extreme caution, one can descend it to fully appreciate the beauty of the falls. While Susan, Kevin and I made the descent to the base of the falls.

The lower portion of Tuscarora Falls
Tuscarora Falls drops forty-seven feet in two drops. The first drop is a solid veil, but the second drop, which is what I personally love about this waterfall, is split in the center by a large rock. This waterfall is named in honor of the Tuscarora Indians, who once made their home within the borders of Pennsylvania.

Originally from the North Carolina region, the Tuscarora moved northward after a series of battles with settlers known as the Tuscarora War in the early 1700s. Most of the Tuscarora settled in present-day Pennsylvania and southern New York. They would ally themselves with the Iroquois and would become a member of the Six Nations. During the American Revolution, the majority of the Tuscarora joined forces with the fledgling United States to fight against the British Army.

The Tuscarora Indians have left their mark in Central Pennsylvania. The Tuscarora Valley, Tuscarora State Forest, and Tuscarora State Park are just a few places named in their memory.

Tuscarora Falls
Photograph courtesy of Susan
After finishing our pictures at the base of the falls, we carefully made our way back up the hillside to continue our journey.

Again, please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE use caution if you descend the steep path to the base of the falls. The loose dirt and rocks makes it extremely difficult.

A note of thanks: A big thank you goes out to Susan and Kevin for joining me on this adventure and also for allowing the usage of their pictures in this article.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Along the Way: Conestoga Falls

Ganoga Branch of Kitchen Creek
Photograph courtesy of Susan
 I want to start with stating that the trails winding through Ganoga Glen and Glen Leigh are steep in spots and can become slippery. Please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls and please wear proper footwear.

By the time we left Mohican Falls, the number of people had definitely doubled on the trail. And, by now my legs were aching and we weren't to Waters Meet yet. Part of me was jealous as I watched much younger - and thinner - people who zipped past me.

The best part of this section of trail was it leveled out some. Most of the Falls Trail is a constant downhill, but we had easier walking here, if only for a short distance. As we passed through this section of the trail, I was happy to see that others were resting on the larger rocks - evidently I was not the only person who was tired.

The small drop at the top of Conestoga Falls
With the start of the slide
Photograph courtesy of Susan
This section of Kitchen Creek's Ganoga Branch was one of the nicest sections, not only for the ease of hiking, but also for the countless mini-falls along the way. Literally each step was a different view of the beauty of the glen. Each rock, with water flowing over it, was a new and different mark of beauty.

And then we arrived at Conestoga Falls..

As we scrambled down the rocks to get our first look at the Conestoga Falls, a strange feeling came over me of disappointment. The sources I had read said this waterfall was not very photographic. However, I was hoping that the falls would at least have something to compare with the beauty of what we had already encountered, but to be honest, they were (and forgive me for saying this) plain and boring. 

The start of the slide - Conestoga Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
Conestoga Falls is mostly a slide with water flowing through a narrow chute. Unlike the other waterfalls at Ricketts Glen, it fans out very little, except for the first small drop at the top and another small drop at its base. The falls lives up to its type as a slide - it was like watching water flowing down a sliding board.

With a height of seventeen feet, the waterfalls named after the Conestoga Indians was to me the biggest disappointment of all of the named falls. If they hadn't been named on the map - and we were searching for and photographing all of the named falls - we would not have spent as much time at these falls as we did.

Even when we got to the base of Conestoga Falls, the falls appeared mostly obscured and what real beauty they may have held was hidden by the brush and trees..

The Conestogas, who were native to Pennsylvania, got the short end of the stick. Of all of the falls in the glen, this one was the least impressive and they received the honor of having their name associated with them.

Kitchen Creek looking upstream from the top of
Conestoga Falls
Photograph courtesy of Susan
In the history of the state, one has to feel remorse for the Conestoga Indians. Also referred to as the Susquehannocks, they lived along the Susquehanna River, from the Chesapeake Bay to southern New York. In 1600, it was estimated that there were roughly 6,000 members of the Susquehannocks living in twenty different tribes scattered throughout the river valley. Captain John Smith, in 1608, recorded that the Susquehannocks had a large village, numbering roughly 2,000, at present-day Lancaster (though he never visited it to verify this estimate). In 1615, Samuel Champlain visited one of their cities near the New York/Pennsylvania border called Carantouan that had 800 warriors present during his visit, These warriors came from Carantouan and two neighboring villages.

Sadly by 1677, the vast majority of those Indians were gone, killed off by disease and war. Those remaining moved westward, mixing in with other Indian tribes. A couple hundred remaining Susquehannocks settled in Conestoga Town, in present-day Lancaster County. By 1763, the census lists twenty-two Conestogas still living. On December 14, 1763, a group of settlers known as the Paxton Boys would attack the Conestogas in response to Pontiac's Rebellion. The remaining fourteen Conestogas were placed in a Lancaster jail for "their protection." The Paxton Boys tracked them to the jail and on December 27, the sheriff, fearing the mob, turned the keys over to the boys who massacred the defenseless Indians.

A view from the to of Conestoga Falls
The pool at the base it barely affected by
The waters entering it
After taking a couple of pictures we set out downstream to locate the next of the waterfalls within Ganoga Glen.

Again, please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls

A note of thanks: A big thank you goes out to Susan and Kevin for joining me on this adventure and also for allowing the usage of their pictures in this article.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Along the Way: Mohican Falls

Mohican Falls
I want to start with stating that the trails winding through Ganoga Glen and Glen Leigh are steep in spots and can become slippery. Please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls and please wear proper footwear.

“What is the next waterfall? Zech asked as we headed downstream.

“I paused for a moment to pull the folded map from my pocket. “Mohican Falls.”

"Wasn't there a book written about the Mohicans?" Zech asked suddenly.

"The Last of the Mohicans?" I asked knowing that the famous novel by James Fenimore Cooper was more than likely the book he was talking about. After all, it is the book that most people would identify the name Mohican with..

"Yes, that's the one," he replied eagerly. "I saw it on your bookcase."

"You ever read it?"

He gave me a strange look that said 'Are you kidding me?' before he answered: "No."

Unnamed waterfall entering into the Ganoga Branch
Of Kitchen Creek near Mohican Falls
Photograph courtesy of Susan
Not that I really blame him. I had to read it years ago and I found the classic adventure book dry, boring, and in parts confusing. But before the two of us could debate the book, Zech and I caught up with Susan and Kevin near the base of Mohican Falls.

However, they weren't taking pictures of the named falls. Instead they were focused upon another waterfall, one on a small stream that was entering the Ganoga Branch of Kitchen Creek. Looking at the map, I couldn't find a name from the waterfall or the stream that it was located on.

"The couple sitting on the rock at Delaware Falls told us about this one," Kevin offered as Zech and I caught up with them.

“They were telling us that this one is often missed by hikers,” Susan added as Kevin stepped cautiously onto the wet rocks to get a better view of the waterfall. The couple had also told Zech and I about this one stating that it was one of their favorites in the park and they had a point - this waterfall is as beautiful, if not prettier than, the waterfalls on Kitchen Creek.

Mohican Falls
Photograph courtesy of Sisan
After getting pictures of the unnamed falls, we turned our attention to the named falls on Kitchen Creek. Mohican Falls is a slide waterfall that drops thirty-nine feet in two separate slides. It is difficult to photograph because the upper slide moves one direction before the second slide brings it back the opposite way. Most photography sites online suggest that to get the full beauty of these falls is to photograph the lower and upper slides separately.

We were about to give in and photograph them separately when we found the perfect spot to capture the complete falls.

The falls are named in honor of the Mohicans, a member of the Algonquin tribe who traditionally lived in the Hudson River Valley in the area around present-day Albany, New York. The Mohicans consisted of five different groups who formed a Confederacy.

When Henry Hudson arrived in the new world, it was the Mohicans he first encountered while exploring along the river named in his honor. The Mohicans would become involved in a war against the Mohawk Nation, being forced eastward into western Massachusetts and Connecticut, with the majority of them settling in the area of Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

With the start of the Revolutionary War, most of the Mohicans joined forces with the colonists and saw action in many of the battles in the New England region. The fact that they helped the colonists was quickly forgotten after the end of the Revolutionary War. They were soon removed to the western part of the state where they were forced on a reservation with the Oneida. By the 1830s they had been removed to Wisconsin where they joined with the Munsee Indians on a reservation in Shawano County.

After taking our pictures of the waterfalls, we knew it was time to continue our journey to the next of the named waterfalls.

Mohican Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
Again, please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls

A note of thanks: A big thank you goes out to Susan and Kevin for joining me on this adventure and also for allowing the usage of their pictures in this article.

Friday, March 3, 2017

Along the Way: Delaware Falls

Delaware Falls
 I want to start with stating that the trails winding through Ganoga Glen and Glen Leigh are steep in spots and can become slippery. Please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls and please wear proper footwear.

The distance between Seneca and Delaware Falls was a short one that Zech, Susan, Kevin and I covered as quickly as we safely could. I thought there had been a lot of people on the trail before, but the number seemed to multiply as they too were enjoying the coolness of the glen that hid the true heat of the August afternoon.

Along the path, we began seeing strange rock formations. A closer look showed that these, though they looked like rocks, were actually trees roots that had spread over the rocks. The roots were almost the same color as the rocks they had spread over, giving them the impression of a strangely formed and eroded rock.

Delaware Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
Listed as being close to thirty-seven feet tall, Delaware Falls has been mentioned in many books and blogs that it can be easily missed. I was curious to get a view of them to see why so many people thought they were easily overlooked.

As we took in the waterfalls, I could not figure out in my mind how one would miss this part of the Glen. The best answer I could come up with was due to the main part of the falls being a slide, ending in a drop of a couple feet. Most of the thirty-seven feet are also hidden by brush and trees, causing the normal hiker to walk past most of the waterfall without realizing it is there.

The Delaware Falls are named in honor of the Delaware, also known as the Lenape, Indians. Their name, in their language, translates as "people," and the Lenni Lenape translates as the "Original People" or "First People."

Delaware Falls
Photograph courtesy of Susan
No other group of Indians would have the affect on Pennsylvania's history as the Lenape. Traditionally, their homelands were in the eastern portion in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. These lands would be purchased by William Penn as colonists settled on them and later were stolen from the Indians by his descendants. The Lenape would be constantly forced westward by both the settlers and the Iroquois Confederacy who gladly sold the lands that the Lenape traditionally hunted and lived on to the Penn family. Throughout the mid and late 1700s, the Lenape would fight back, making the frontier a violent and bloody place to live.

As I enjoyed these falls, I felt a sadness come over me. I found it strange and extremely sad that the Delaware, who had some of the most important parts in Pennsylvania's history, were nearly overlooked once again. The very simple waterfall was named in their honor and memory, while those Indians traditionally living in New York state have much grander and beautiful falls named after them.

Delaware Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
I found these falls to be one of the more "relaxing" falls in the glen and took a couple of minutes to enjoy the spot. I wasn't the only one who found this spot relaxing as a family sat eating on one of the boulders. I passed pleasantries with them, not realizing that Susan and Kevin (who were a short distance ahead of Zech and I) had stopped to talk with them also. They shared a couple of photographic spots that could easily be missed in the glen stating that we should definitely consider stopping to see these.

We thanked them for the information and continued on our journey downstream to catch up with Susan and Kevin.

Again, please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls

A note of thanks: A big thank you goes out to Susan and Kevin for joining me on this adventure and also for allowing the usage of their pictures in this article.

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Along the Way: Seneca Falls

Seneca Falls
Photograph courtesy of Kevin
I want to start with stating that the trails winding through Ganoga Glen and Glen Leigh are steep in spots and can become slippery. Please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls and please wear proper footwear.

Leaving Ganoga Falls, (they can be found here: Ganoga Falls ) we continued along the Ganoga Branch of Kitchen Creek, headed downstream in search of the next waterfall. The creek bubbled and babbled along beside us. Unlike spots above Ganoga Falls, there were no calm sections of stream from here to the place where the two branches of Kitchen Creek meet. Without a doubt, the mini-falls and the water splashing around the rocks in this section creates numerous pictures waiting to be taken.

Our group was no exception as the cameras were constantly capturing the beauty of the glen.

At one point the trail clung to a ledge that wraps around a large boulder only feet from the roaring Kitchen Creek. The trail, though narrow before, would become even narrower as we continued. At many places from here to Waters Meet, somebody would have to step off of the trail to allow others to pass.

Making our way around the boulder, we were greeted by the next of the major waterfalls.

I've read in a couple places that Seneca Falls can easily be missed and arriving at the falls I could see how that could happen. At twelve feet, it is one of the smallest of the named falls within the state park as Kitchen Creek slides quickly over the rocks.

The trail clings to the rock walls and is narrow in places
In my mind, there are two main reasons that this small waterfall is missed by many. The first is due to this section of the glen is accessed by the narrowest parts of the Falls Trail. Keeping an eye on the trail for safety, Seneca Falls can be accidentally overlooked as one passes by on the trail.

The second reason that Seneca Falls can be easily overlooked is also due to its location. Nestled between the ninety-four foot Ganoga Falls and the thirty-seven foot Delaware Falls, Seneca Falls has none of the grandeur of its named neighbors above and below.

Seneca Falls is named in the honor of the Seneca Indians. The Seneca were the westernmost of the Iroquois Confederacy; referred to as the "Keepers of the Western Door," they were one of the three "Elder Brothers." The lands that they traditional called home were located between the Genessee River and Canandaigua Lake, but they hunted in the lands of western Pennsylvania. Historically, the Seneca fought and destroyed many of the smaller Indian nations, including the Erie Nation located along the lake of the same name.

The Seneca fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War and participated in some of the bloodiest massacres that happened during this time frame, including the Cherry Valley Massacre in New York.

Seneca Falls
Photograph courtesy of Susan
The Seneca would sign a peace treaty in 1794, the Treaty of Canandaigua, with the United States. This peace treaty would remain intact until the 1960s when the United States violated it with the construction of the Kinzua Dam and Allegheny Reservoir. The waters of the Allegheny River would flood the reservation that the Seneca had lived on since 1794. The courts eventually evicted them from these lands and forced them to move onto new lands north of the Pennsylvania border.

Returning my thoughts to the Seneca Falls, these small falls may have been named in their honor, but sadly the falls, like the Seneca themselves, can easily be overlooked and ignored. However, the falls are worth stopping at to enjoy.

With our stop at Seneca Falls complete, we headed downstream toward the next of the waterfalls in the Ganoga Glen.

Again, please be careful while visiting and hiking the area of the falls

A note of thanks: A big thank you goes out to Susan and Kevin for joining me on this adventure and also for allowing the usage of their pictures in this article.